Some intuition: Recall that if is a closed hyperbolic manifold

then is word-hyperbolic. However, a lot of interesting hyperbolic manifolds are not closed.

**Example:** Let be the figure 8 knot.

Then the complement admits a complete hyperbolic metric and is of finite volume.

So, here we have an example of a hyperbolic manifold which is not compact but is of finite volume. This is almost as which is almost as natural as being closed.

is homotopy equivalent to , the complement of a thickened in .

is a compact manifold with boundary and its interior admits a hyperbolic metric. The boundary of is homeomorphic to a 2-torus, so induces a map . By Dehn’s lemma, the map is injective so cannot be word hyperbolic. The point is that acts nicely on but no cocompactly so the Svarc=Milnor lemma does not apply.

The torus boundary component of corresponds to a **cusp** of .

The point is that we can use cusped manifolds like to build a lot of manifolds and in particular a lot of hyperbolic manifolds.

Take and a solid Torus .

Choose a homeomorphism

**Definition:** The manifold is obtained from by **Dehn filling** .

We now want to understand what we have done to . The map induces a map :

The surjectivity of follows from the fact that is a homeomorphism. The Seifert Van Kampen theorem implies that , where denotes the normal closure of .

**Gromov-Thurston theorem: ** Let M be any compact hyperbolic manifold and be a component of homeomorphic to a 2-torus for all but finitely many choices of

the Dehn filling is hyperbolic.

Note: by finitely many we mean finitely many maps up to homotopy.

This is a very fruitful way of building hyperbolic manifolds. The next question to ask is whether we can do the same thing for groups. So, now we will try to develop a group theoretic version of this picture.

Let be a group theoretic graph with the induced length metric. Construct a new graph called the **combinatorial horoball** on as follows: Define the vertices . There are two sorts of edges in . We say that and are joined by a (horizontal) edge if and . We say that and are joined by a (vertical) edge for all .

For large enough and will have distance one and iff iff .

**Exercise 27**:

** (A).** For , .

** (B).** For any connected , is Gromov hyperbolic .

Let be a group and let be a finite set of finitely generated subgroups of . Choose a finite generating set for such that for each , generate . Then contains natural copies of .

Construct the **augmented Cayley graph** by gluing on combinatorial horoballs equivariantly.

where for each

and each /, is glued to along .

**Definition:** G is **hyperbolic rel ** if and only if is Gromov hyperbolic for some (any) choice of .

## 1 comment

Comments feed for this article

27 March 2012 at 2.23 pm

Agol’s Virtual Haken Theorem (part 2): Agol-Groves-Manning strike back « Geometry and the imagination[…] to the conjugates of the subgroups in in (the Cayley graph of) G is hyperbolic (see here for more details). Note that if the subgroups are themselves hyperbolic, then is also hyperbolic […]